Drilling is accomplished by circulating a drilling medium through the drill bit while rotating and lowering or advancing the string of drill rods as downward force is applied to a cutting bit. The bit cuts and breaks up the material as it penetrates the formation, and the drilling medium picks up the cuttings generated by the cutting action of the bit. The drilling medium, with cuttings, then flows outward through the annular space between the drill rods and drill hole, and carries the cuttings to the ground surface, thus cleaning the hole. The string of drill rods and bit is advanced downward, deepening the hole as the operation proceeds.
Fluid drilling is accomplished by circulating water or a water-based fluid with additives. Additives such as bentonite or polymers are frequently added to water to lubricate and cool the bit and to circulate (transport) cuttings to the surface. Drill fluid can also act to prevent cave or collapse of the drill hole. After the drilling fluid reaches the surface, it flows to a ditch or effluent pipe and into a settling pit where the cuttings settle to the bottom. Cuttings are sometimes run through a shaker to remove the larger particles. From the settling pit, the drilling fluid overflows into the main pit, from which it is picked up by the suction line of the mud pump and recirculated through the drill string.
Air drilling is performed where introduction of fluids is undesirable. Air rotary drilling requires use of an air compressor with volume displacement large enough to develop sufficient air velocity to remove cuttings. Cuttings can be collected at the surface in cyclone separators. Sometimes a small amount of water or foam may be added to the air to enhance return of cuttings. Air drilling may not be satisfactory in unconsolidated and cohesionless soils under the ground water table. (Source: ASTM D 2113 – 99)
- Mable Pearson answered September 14, 2014